Polym Bull (Berl). 2022 Aug 25:1-66. doi: 10.1007/s00289-022-04443-4. Online ahead of print.
Biopolymers are mainly the polymers which are created or obtained from living creatures such as plants and bacteria rather than petroleum, which has traditionally been the source of polymers. Biopolymers are chain-like molecules composed of repeated chemical blocks derived from renewable resources that may decay in the environment. The usage of biomaterials is becoming more popular as a means of reducing the use of non-renewable resources and reducing environmental pollution produced by synthetic materials. Biopolymers’ biodegradability and non-toxic nature help to maintain our environment clean and safe. This study discusses how to improve the mechanical and physical characteristics of biopolymers, particularly in the realm of bioengineering. The paper begins with a fundamental introduction and progresses to a detailed examination of synthesis and a unique investigation of several recent focused biopolymers with mechanical, physical, and biological characterization. Biopolymers’ unique non-toxicity, biodegradability, biocompatibility, and eco-friendly features are boosting their applications, especially in bioengineering fields, including agriculture, pharmaceuticals, biomedical, ecological, industrial, aqua treatment, and food packaging, among others, at the end of this paper. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the relevance of biopolymers in smart and novel bioengineering applications.
GRAPHICAL ABSTRACT: The Graphical abstract represents the biological sources and applications of biopolymers. Plants, bacteria, animals, agriculture wastes, and fossils are all biological sources for biopolymers, which are chemically manufactured from biological monomer units, including sugars, amino acids, natural fats and oils, and nucleotides. Biopolymer modification (chemical or physical) is recognized as a crucial technique for modifying physical and chemical characteristics, resulting in novel materials with improved capabilities and allowing them to be explored to their full potential in many fields of application such as tissue engineering, drug delivery, agriculture, biomedical, food industries, and industrial applications.