ScientificWorldJournal. 2022 Aug 6;2022:2599467. doi: 10.1155/2022/2599467. eCollection 2022.
We live in a world that is completely dependent on energy; thus, humankind can no longer live without power. With electricity being the main form of energy today, this has increased the complexity of our life today. In Uganda, electricity generation is mainly through hydropower, which puts the country in the bottleneck of overdependence on one source of energy. There are many energy systems out there that the country can use to diversify its electricity generation. Therefore, the need to understand the level of development and utilization of various energy systems has been the underlying question for this present study. A comprehensive literature survey was conducted using electronic databases, including ScienceDirect, Wiley, Sage, Scopus, Taylor & Francis, and Google Scholar. The publications in the form of reports, conference papers, working papers, discussion papers, journal articles, book sections, and textbooks were considered in this study. In total, 11 energy systems, including human and animal energy, solid biomass (firewood), hydropower, wind, geothermal, solar, nuclear, peat, coal, petroleum, and nonsolid biomass (methanol, hydrogen, ethanol, biodiesel, and biogas), are described. The current and future development and utilization of these energy systems have been described. The challenges for developing and utilizing these systems were elaborated on, and the solutions for their challenges were presented. Hydropower from the Nile River, being the main river for large hydropower plant construction, is the dominant energy system in Uganda. Nuclear energy will be the salvation for the country’s electric energy supply in the near future. Therefore, Uganda needs to bet big on nuclear energy.