Sci Rep. 2022 May 20;12(1):8585. doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-12589-4.
The present work introduces a one-step and facile hydrothermal procedure as a green process for the first time to synthesize nickel(II) oxide (NiO) nanoparticles. The as-prepared nanomaterials were used as high efficient, low toxic and cost catalyst for the synthesis of some organic compounds. Ni(NO3)2 and some natural extract were used as a surfactant for the first time to synthesis NiO nanomaterials. A high synthesis yield (91%) was obtained for S2. Rietveld analysis affirmed the cubic crystal system of the obtained NiO nanocatalyst. The morphology studies were carried out with the FESEM method and the images revealed a change from non-homogenous to homogenous spherical particles when the Barberryas was used instead of orange blossom surfactant. Besides, the images revealed that the particle size distribution was in the range of 20 to 60 nm. The synthesized catalysts were used for the first time in Biginelli multicomponent reactions (MCRs) for the preparation of 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-ones (DHPMs) under the present facile reaction conditions. High yield (97%) of the final product was achieved at the optimum condensation reaction conditions (Catalyst: 60 mg; temperature: 90 °C and time: 90 min) when ethyl acetoacetate/methyl acetoacetate (1 mmol), benzaldehyde (1 mmol) and urea (1.2 mmol) were used. A kinetic study affirmed pseudo-first-order model for Biginelli reactions followed the pseudo-first-order model.