An Acad Bras Cienc. 2023 Aug 14;95(suppl 2):e20210124. doi: 10.1590/0001-3765202320210124. eCollection 2023.
The dyes methylene blue and malachite green were adsorbed onto the as-prepared and chemically-modified biosorbents obtained from the mesocarp of crushed calabash (Lagenaria siceraria). The aim was to investigate the adsorption capacity of the natural biosorbent, neutralized biosorbent (0.1 mol L-1 NaOH, followed by 0.1 mol L-1 HCl), acid biosorbent (0.1 mol L-1 HCl) and basic biosorbent (0.1 mol L-1 NaOH). The maximum adsorption capacities for methylene blue were, in ascending order: 11.37 mg g-1 for acid biomass < 11.87 mg g-1 for basic biomass < 16.55 mg g-1 for neutralized biomass < 18.83 mg g-1 for natural biomass. In ascending order, for malachite green the maximum adsorption capacities were: 12.80 mg g-1 for basic biomass < 13.31 mg g-1 for acid biomass < 18.74 mg g-1 for natural biomass < 19.67 mg g-1 for neutralized biomass. A comparison of the thermodynamic parameters Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy obtained for the natural biosorbent with those obtained for the chemically-modified biosorbents indicated that the chemical modification proposed led to a change in the materials. The removal capacity, the Freundlich isotherms and the pH of the biosorbents underwent changes with the chemical modification carried out, promoting a novel approach for the use of this biosorbent.