A Review of Biomimetic Topographies and Their Role in Promoting Bone Formation and Osseointegration: Implications for Clinical Use

Biomimetics (Basel). 2022 Apr 16;7(2):46. doi: 10.3390/biomimetics7020046.


The use of metallic and polymeric materials for implants has been increasing over the past decade. This trend can be attributed to a variety of factors including a significant increase in basic science research focused on implant material characteristics and how various surface modifications may stimulate osseointegration and, ultimately, fusion. There are many interbody fusion devices and dental implants commercially available; however, detailed information about their surface properties, and the effects that various materials and surface modifications may have on osteogenesis, is lacking in the literature. While the concept of bone-implant osseointegration is a relatively recent addition to the spine fusion literature, there is a comparatively large body of literature related to dental implants. The purpose of this article is to summarize the science of surface modified bone-facing implants, focusing on biomimetic material chemistry and topography of titanium implants, to promote a better understanding of how these characteristics may impact bone formation and osseointegration. This manuscript has the following aspects: highlights the role of titanium and its alloys as potent osteoconductive bioactive materials; explores the importance of biomimetic surface topography at the macro-, micro- and nano-scale; summarizes how material surface design can influence osteogenesis and immune responses in vitro; focuses on the kinds of surface modifications that play a role in the process. Biomimetic surface modifications can be varied across many clinically available biomaterials, and the literature supports the hypothesis that those biomaterial surfaces that exhibit physical properties of bone resorption pits, such as roughness and complex hierarchical structures at the submicron and nanoscale, are more effective in supporting osteoblast differentiation in vitro and osteogenesis in vivo.

PMID:35466263 | PMC:PMC9036271 | DOI:10.3390/biomimetics7020046


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