Mater Today Bio. 2022 May 11;14:100284. doi: 10.1016/j.mtbio.2022.100284. eCollection 2022 Mar.
Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapies that target programmed cell death-1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway are currently used for the treatment of various cancer types. However, low response rates of ICB remain the major issue and limit their applications in clinic. Here, we developed a ROS-responsive synergistic delivery system (pep-PAPM@PTX) by integrating physically-encapsulated paclitaxel (PTX) and surface-modified anti-PD-L1 peptide (pep) for combined chemotherapy and ICB therapy. Pep-PAPM@PTX could bind the cell surface PD-L1 and drive its recycling to lysosomal degradation, thus reverting PTX-induced PD-L1 upregulation and downregulating PD-L1 expression. As a result, pep-PAPM@PTX significantly promoted T cell infiltration and increased tumor immunoactivating factors, synergizing PTX chemotherapy to achieve enhanced anticancer potency in a triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) model.