A sustainable metal and base-free direct amidation of esters using water as a green solvent

RSC Adv. 2023 May 16;13(22):14958-14962. doi: 10.1039/d3ra02637j. eCollection 2023 May 15.


Herein, we report a simple and efficient synthetic approach for direct amidation of esters via C(acyl)-O bond cleavage without any additional reagents or catalysts, using only water as a green solvent. Subsequently, the reaction byproduct is recovered and utilized for the next phase of ester synthesis. This method emphasized metal-free, additive-free, and base-free characteristics making it a new, sustainable, and eco-friendly way to realize direct amide bond formation. In addition, the synthesis of the drug molecule diethyltoluamide and the Gram-scale synthesis of a representative amide are demonstrated.

PMID:37200700 | PMC:PMC10186333 | DOI:10.1039/d3ra02637j


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