A Sustainable Solution to Skin Diseases: Ecofriendly Transdermal Patches

Pharmaceutics. 2023 Feb 8;15(2):579. doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics15020579.


Skin is the largest epithelial surface of the human body, with a surface area of 2 m2 for the average adult human. Being an external organ, it is susceptible to more than 3000 potential skin diseases, including injury, inflammation, microbial and viral infections, and skin cancer. Due to its nature, it offers a large accessible site for administrating several medications against these diseases. The dermal and transdermal delivery of such medications are often ensured by utilizing dermal/transdermal patches or microneedles made of biocompatible and biodegradable materials. These tools provide controlled delivery of drugs to the site of action in a rapid and therapeutically effective manner with enhanced diffusivity and minimal side effects. Regrettably, they are usually fabricated using synthetic materials with possible harmful environmental effects. Manufacturing such tools using green synthesis routes and raw materials is hence essential for both ecological and economic sustainability. In this review, natural materials including chitosan/chitin, alginate, keratin, gelatin, cellulose, hyaluronic acid, pectin, and collagen utilized in designing ecofriendly patches will be explored. Their implementation in wound healing, skin cancer, inflammations, and infections will be discussed, and the significance of these studies will be evaluated with future perspectives.

PMID:36839902 | PMC:PMC9960884 | DOI:10.3390/pharmaceutics15020579


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