Adsorption characteristics and mechanisms of Cd2+ from aqueous solution by biochar derived from corn stover

Sci Rep. 2022 Oct 21;12(1):17714. doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-22714-y.

ABSTRACT

Corn stover could be pyrolysed to prepare biochar for removing pollutants in water and realizing the resource utilization of biomass. The aims of the present study were to investigate the optimal preparation and adsorption conditions of biochar and to reveal the adsorption characteristics and mechanisms of Cd2+ in water by biochar. For this purpose, with Cd2+ as the target pollutant, the pyrolysis conditions involved in the pyrolysis temperature, retention time, and heating rate were evaluated and optimized. Additionally, the characteristics, mechanisms and optimal adsorption conditions of Cd2+ by biochar were determined. A series of characterization techniques was employed, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and specific surface area analysis (SBET). The optimum pyrolysis parameters were a pyrolysis temperature of 700 °C, a retention time of 2.5 h, and a heating rate of 5 °C/min. Acid/base modification did not improve the adsorption capacity of biochar. The Langmuir and the Elovich model were the most suitable isotherm and kinetic models for equilibrium data, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity fitted by Langmuir model was 13.4 mg/g. Furthermore, mineral precipitation and π electron interactions were shown to be the main adsorption mechanisms of Cd2+. The optimum adsorption conditions for Cd2+ in water were a CaCl2 electrolyte solution of 0.01 mol/L, a pH level of 6.7, and a biochar dosage of 0.4 g. Our results indicated that corn stover biochar was an appropriate approach for improving the status of water with Cd2+ contamination in the short term and for promoting a new perspective for the rational utilization of corn stover and the low-cost pollution control of heavy metals in water.

PMID:36271027 | PMC:PMC9587245 | DOI:10.1038/s41598-022-22714-y

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