Heliyon. 2023 Feb 24;9(3):e13986. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e13986. eCollection 2023 Mar.
Pesticide usage has increased to fulfil agricultural demand. Pesticides such as organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) are ubiquitous in world food production. Their widespread usage has unavoidable detrimental consequences for humans, wildlife, water, and soil environments. Hence, the development of more convenient and efficient pesticide residue (PR) detection methods is of paramount importance. Visual detecting approaches have acquired a lot of interest among different sensing systems due to inherent advantages in terms of simplicity, speed, sensitivity, and eco-friendliness. Furthermore, various detections have been proven to enable real-life PR surveillance in environment water. Fluorometric (FL), colourimetric (CL), and enzyme-inhibition (EI) techniques have emerged as viable options. These sensing technologies do not need complex operating processes or specialist equipment, and the simple colour change allows for visual monitoring of the sensing result. Visual sensing techniques for on-site detection of PR in water environments are discussed in this paper. This paper further reviews prior research on the integration of CL, FL, and EI-based techniques with nanoparticles (NPs), quantum dots (QDs), and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Smartphone detection technologies for PRs are also reviewed. Finally, conventional methods and nanoparticle (NPs) based strategies for the detection of PRs are compared.
PMID:36915503 | PMC:PMC10006482 | DOI:10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e13986