Advancement in “Garbage In Biomaterials Out (GIBO)” concept to develop biomaterials from agricultural waste for tissue engineering and biomedical applications

J Environ Health Sci Eng. 2022 Jul 31;20(2):1015-1033. doi: 10.1007/s40201-022-00815-0. eCollection 2022 Dec.


Presently on a global scale, one of the major concerns is to find effective strategies to manage the agricultural waste to protect the environment. One strategy that has been drawing attention among the researchers is the development of biocompatible materials from agricultural waste. This strategy implies successful conversion of agricultural waste products (e.g.: cellulose, eggshell etc.) into building blocks for biomaterial development. Some of these wastes contain even bioactive compounds having biomedical applications. The replacement and augmentation of human tissue with biomaterials as alternative to traditional method not only bypasses immune-rejection, donor scarcity, and maintenance; but also provides long term solution to damaged or malfunctioning organs. Biomaterials development as one of the key challenges in tissue engineering approach, resourced from natural origin imparts better biocompatibility due to closely mimicking composition with cellular microenvironment. The “Garbage In, Biomaterials Out (GIBO)” concept, not only recycles the agricultural wastes, but also adds to biomaterial raw products for further product development in tissue regeneration. This paper reviews the conversion of garbage agricultural by-products to the biocompatible materials for various biomedical applications.

GRAPHICAL ABSTRACT: The agro-waste biomass processed, purified, modified, and further utilized for the fabrication of biomaterials-based support system for tissue engineering applications to grow living body parts in vitro or in vivo.

PMID:36406592 | PMC:PMC9672289 | DOI:10.1007/s40201-022-00815-0


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