Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao. 2022 Jun 25;38(6):2153-2168. doi: 10.13345/j.cjb.210928.
In recent years, antibiotic resistance has become increasingly serious, and the number of cancer patients keeps increasing. There is an urgent need to develop new drugs with antibacterial and antitumor effects. Halophilic microorganisms are a special group of microorganisms living in extreme environment. They have the characteristics of metabolic diversity, low nutritional requirements and adaptability to harsh conditions, thus can serve as promising candidates for new drug discovery. To date, researchers have isolated a variety of metabolites and enzymes with antibacterial and/or antitumor activities from halophilic microorganisms. This review summarized the functions and potential biomedical applications of halophilic microorganisms and their related products, such as antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antioxidant, biomedical materials and drug carriers. In particular, novel antibacterial and antitumor substances recently discovered in halophilic microorganisms, as well as the biomedical applications of ectoine, a unique metabolite found in halophilic microorganisms, were introduced. Finally, future development and utilization of halophilic microorganisms in biomedical and industrial fields were prospected.