Int J Reprod Biomed. 2022 Sep 6;20(8):651-662. doi: 10.18502/ijrm.v20i8.11754. eCollection 2022 Aug.
BACKGROUND: Cyclophosphamide (CP) is an anticancer agent, but its chronic administration induces ovarian toxicity.
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effects of aqueous extract (AE) and methanol extract (ME) of Amaranthus hybridus (A. hybridus) on CP-induced ovarian toxicity in rats.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: 40 female Wistar rats (10 wk, 170-200 gr) were distributed into 8 groups (n = 5/each) as follows: 1) healthy control; 2) CP+distilled water (10 ml/kg/d); 3) CP+3%-tween 80 (10 mL/kg/d); 4) CP+clomiphene citrate (2 mg/kg/d); 5, 6) CP+AE of A. hybridus (55 and 110 mg/kg/d); and 7, 8) CP+ME of A. hybridus (55 and 110 mg/kg/d). After 28 days of treatment, estrus cyclicity, ovarian and uterine weights as well as estradiol levels and ovarian histology were determined.
RESULTS: CP induced ovarian toxicity after 28 days of exposure. More specifically, CP disturbed the estrus cycle, decreased ovary and uterus weights (p = 0.04), and the 17-β estradiol level (p = 0.04), and induced severe ovarian damages. Remarkably, A. hybridus significantly increased (p = 0.03) the ovarian weight (AE and ME at all doses) and uterus weight (ME at 110 mg/kg/d), compared with the CP-treated rats. Moreover, the 17-β estradiol level was significantly elevated (p = 0.02) in rats given clomiphene citrate and A. hybridus (AE 110 mg/kg/d; ME 55 mg/kg/d). Finally, the ovaries of rats given plant extracts had many corpus luteum and normal follicles, and no cystic follicles.
CONCLUSION: prevented the detrimental effects of CP on ovarian function, which could support its traditional use as a fertility enhancer.