Amorphous calcium magnesium phosphate nanocomposites with superior osteogenic activity for bone regeneration

Regen Biomater. 2021 Nov 24;8(6):rbab068. doi: 10.1093/rb/rbab068. eCollection 2021 Dec.

ABSTRACT

The seek of bioactive materials for promoting bone regeneration is a challenging and long-term task. Functionalization with inorganic metal ions or drug molecules is considered effective strategies to improve the bioactivity of various existing biomaterials. Herein, amorphous calcium magnesium phosphate (ACMP) nanoparticles and simvastatin (SIM)-loaded ACMP (ACMP/SIM) nanocomposites were developed via a simple co-precipitation strategy. The physiochemical property of ACMP/SIM was explored using transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC), and the role of Mg2+ in the formation of ACMP/SIM was revealed using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES). After that, the transformation process of ACMP/SIM in simulated body fluid (SBF) was also tracked to simulate and explore the in vivo mineralization performance of materials. We find that ACMP/SIM releases ions of Ca2+, Mg2+ and PO43- , when it is immersed in SBF at 37°C, and a phase transformation occurred during which the initially amorphous ACMP turns into self-assembled hydroxyapatite (HAP). Furthermore, ACMP/SIM displays high cytocompatibility and promotes the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. For the in vivo studies, lamellar ACMP/SIM/Collagen scaffolds with aligned pore structures were prepared and used to repair a rat defect model in calvaria. ACMP/SIM/Collagen scaffolds show a positive effect in promoting the regeneration of calvaria defect after 12 weeks. The bioactive ACMP/SIM nanocomposites are promising as bone repair materials. Considering the facile preparation process and superior in vitro/vivo bioactivity, the as-prepared ACMP/SIM would be a potential candidate for bone related biomedical applications.

PMID:34917396 | PMC:PMC8670301 | DOI:10.1093/rb/rbab068

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