BMC Microbiol. 2022 Nov 15;22(1):275. doi: 10.1186/s12866-022-02691-y.
BACKGROUND: Wickerhamomyces anomalus (W. anomalus) is a kind of non-Saccharomyces yeast that has a variety of unique physiological characteristics and metabolic features and is widely used in many fields, such as food preservation, biomass energy, and aquaculture feed protein production. However, the mechanism of W. anomalus response to ethanol stress is still unclear, which greatly limits its application in the production of ethanol beverages and ethanol fuels. Therefore, we checked the effects of ethanol stress on the morphology, the growth, and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and metabolites (DEMs) of W. anomalus.
RESULTS: High concentrations of ethanol (9% ethanol and 12% ethanol) remarkably inhibited the growth of W. anomalus. Energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism, fatty acids metabolism, and nucleic acid metabolism were significantly influenced when exposing to 9% ethanol and 12% ethanolstress, which maybe universal for W. anomalus to response to different concentrations of ethanol stressl Furthermore, extracellular addition of aspartate, glutamate, and arginine significantly abated ethanol damage and improved the survival rate of W. anomalus.
CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained in this study provide insights into the mechanisms involved in W. anomalus response to ethanol stress. Therefore, new strategies can be realized to improve the ethanol tolerance of W. anomalus through metabolic engineering.