Antagonistic impact on cadmium stress in alfalfa supplemented with nano-zinc oxide and biochar via upregulating metal detoxification

J Hazard Mater. 2022 Nov 2;443(Pt B):130309. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2022.130309. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Eco-toxicological estimation of cadmium induced damages by morpho-physiological and cellular response could be an insightful strategy to alleviate negative impact of Cd in agricultural crops. The current study revealed novel patterns of Cd-bioaccumulation and cellular mechanism opted by alfalfa to acquire Cd tolerance under various soil applied zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnO) doses (0, 30, 60, 90 mg kg-1), combined with 2% biochar (BC). Herein, the potential impact of these soil amendments was justified by decreased Cd and increased Zn-bioaccumulation into roots by 38 % and 48 % and shoots by 51 % and 72 % respectively, with co-exposure of nZnO with BC. As, the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) ultrastructural observations confirmed that Cd-exposure induced stomatal closure, and caused damage to roots and leaves ultrastructure as compared to the control group. On the contrary, the damages to the above-mentioned traits were reversed by a higher nZnO dose, and the impact was further aggravated by adding BC along nZnO. Furthermore, higher nZnO and BC levels efficiently alleviated the Cd-mediated reductions in alfalfa biomass, antioxidant enzymatic response, and gaseous exchange traits than control. Overall, soil application of 90 mg kg-1 nZnO with BC (2 %) was impactful in averting Cd stress damages and ensuring better plant performance. Thereby, applying soil nZnO and BC emerge as promising green remediation techniques to enhance crop tolerance in Cd-polluted soil.

PMID:36356523 | DOI:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2022.130309

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