Antibacterial and antibiofilm potential of Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus YT and its cell-surface extract

BMC Microbiol. 2023 Jan 12;23(1):12. doi: 10.1186/s12866-022-02751-3.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria survived in the biofilm pose a serious threat to food safety and human health. It is urgent to find safe and effective methods to control the planktonic bacteria as well as the biofilm formation. Substances with antibacterial and antibiofilm activity found in lactic acid bacteria were mainly metabolites secreted in the cell-free supernatant. Previously, Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus YT was isolated because its cell pellets displayed distinguished antibacterial activity under neutral conditions. This study aimed to investigate the antibacterial and antibiofilm properties of the L. rhamnosus YT cells and its crude cell-surface extract.

RESULTS: The antibacterial activity of the L. rhamnosus YT cells constantly increased with cells growth and reached the peak value after the cells grew into stationary phase. After cocultivation with the L. rhamnosus YT cells, the biofilm formation of B. subtilis and S. enterica was reduced. The antibacterial activity of the L. rhamnosus YT cells was varied along with various culture conditions (carbon sources, nitrogen sources, medium pH and cultural temperatures) and the antibacterial intensity (antibacterial activity per cell) was disproportional to the biomass. Furthermore, the cell-surface extract was isolated and displayed broad antimicrobial spectrum with a bacteriostatic mode of action. The antibiofilm activity of the extract was concentration-dependent. In addition, the extract was stable to physicochemical treatments (heat, pH and protease). The extract performed favorable emulsifying property which could reduce the water surface tension from 72.708 mN/m to 51.011 mN/m and the critical micelle concentration (CMC) value was 6.88 mg/mL. Besides, the extract was also able to emulsify hydrocarbon substrates with the emulsification, index (E24) ranged from 38.55% (for n-hexane) to 53.78% (for xylene). The E24 for xylene/extract emulsion was merely decreased by 5.77% after standing for 120 h. The main components of the extract were polysaccharide (684.63 μg/mL) and protein (120.79 μg/mL).

CONCLUSION: The properties of the extract indicated that it might be a kind of biosurfactant. These data suggested that L. rhamnosus YT and the cell-surface extract could be used as an alternative antimicrobial and antibiofilm agent against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria in food industry.

PMID:36635630 | PMC:PMC9835366 | DOI:10.1186/s12866-022-02751-3

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