Application of polymer-coated Macadamia integrifolia nutshell biomass impregnated with palladium for chromium(VI) remediation

Sci Rep. 2021 Dec 17;11(1):24184. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-03473-8.

ABSTRACT

Freely suspended and porous basket restrained granules of palladium nanoparticles supported on polymer-grafted Macadamia nutshell biomass (Pd@Polym-MNS) composite were used for the treatment chromium(VI)-containing water. In the presence of formic acid, the Pd@Polym-MNS demonstrated its activity in the adsorption-reduction-based conversion of noxious chromium(VI) to less toxic chromium(III) with a low activation energy of 13.4 kJ mol-1, ΔH0 (+ 10.8 kJ mol-1), ΔS0 (-270.0 J mol-1 K-1), and ΔG0 (+ 91.3 to + 98.0 kJ mol-1) indicated the exothermic, endergonic and non-spontaneous nature of the catalytic redox reaction. In addition to facilitating easy recovery, rinsing, and reuse, restraining the Pd@Polym-MNS in the basket reactor helped maintain the integrity of the catalysts by preventing violent collisions of suspended granules with the mixing apparatus and the walls of the reaction vessel. Whereas the pseudo-first-order rate constant was recorded as 0.157 min-1 upon initial use, values of the mean and relative standard deviation for the second, third and fourth consecutive uses were found to be 0.219 min-1 and 1.3%, respectively. According to a response surface methodological approach to batch experimentation, the initial concentration of chromium(VI) and catalyst dosage had the greatest impact on the redox reaction rate, accounting for 85.7% and 11.6% of the variability in the value of the pseudo-first-order rate constant, respectively. Mutually beneficial effects of the combinations of high formic acid and low chromium(VI) concentration, high temperature and catalyst dosage as well as high formic acid and catalyst dosage were recorded.

PMID:34921191 | PMC:PMC8683406 | DOI:10.1038/s41598-021-03473-8

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