Vet World. 2022 Nov;15(11):2525-2534. doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2022.2525-2534. Epub 2022 Nov 9.
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Human exposure to aluminum is inevitable, and one of the most adverse health effects of aluminum is a decrease in male fertility rates. Therefore, this study investigated the ameliorative effects of an aqueous extract from Laurus nobilis-bay leaf (BL) on aluminum chloride (AlCl3)-induced testicular toxicity in rats.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n = 6, each group): The control (group 1) received normal saline; Group 2 animals were intraperitoneally administered with 30 mg/kg body weight (BW) AlCl3; and Groups 3 and 4 were co-administered AlCl3 with 125 or 250 mg/kg BW of BL extract, respectively, for 21 days. Testes, epididymis, and blood samples were collected. Testicular plasma enzyme activity was measured using a spectrophotometric assay, while concentrations of inflammatory biomarkers were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits.
RESULTS: There was a significant increase (p < 0.05) in testicular enzyme activity in the group treated with AlCl3. However, there was no significant (p > 0.05) difference in testicular enzyme activity in groups co-administered AlCl3 and BL extract as compared with that in control. There was a significant (p < 0.05) increase in testicular nitrite concentration in the AlCl3-treated group, whereas the administration of BL extract significantly (p < 0.05) decreased nitrite concentration in Groups 3 and 4. Furthermore, the administration of BL extracts increased sperm count and improved the morphology of the testes in AlCl3-treated rats. Flavonoids, phenolic compounds, alkaloids, tannin, glycosides, saponin, anthraquinones, and steroids were identified in BL extract, with alkaloids and glycosides being the most abundant.
CONCLUSION: Aqueous extract from BL ameliorated the toxic effect of AlCl3 and exhibited anti-inflammatory properties by inhibiting nitrite production while improving sperm count and morphology in AlCl3-treated rats. The bioactivity of the extract may be attributed to the presence of a wide range of phytochemicals. Therefore, BL aqueous extract could be a promising source of novel compounds with male fertility-promoting and anti-inflammatory properties.