Neuroradiol J. 2022 Aug 21:19714009221122249. doi: 10.1177/19714009221122249. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Chronic hydrocephalus may develop as a sequela of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, requiring long-term cerebrospinal fluid shunting. Several clinical predictors of chronic hydrocephalus and shunt dependence have been proposed. However, no anatomical predictors have been identified.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed including 61 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Clinical characteristics were noted for each patient including presentation World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grade, modified Fischer grade, aneurysm characteristics, requirement for acute and chronic cerebrospinal fluid diversion, and 3-month modified Rankin scale. CT images were evaluated to determine the Evans’ index and to enumerate the number of arachnoid granulations. Association between the clinical characteristics with ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion and the 3-month modified Rankin scale were assessed.
RESULTS: The initial Evans’ index was positively associated with mFisher grade and age, but not the number of arachnoid granulations. 16.4% patients required insertion of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. The number of arachnoid granulations were a significant negative predictor of ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion [OR: 0.251 (95% CI:0.073-0.862; p = 0.028)]. There was significant difference in the number of arachnoid granulations between those with and without ventriculoperitoneal shunt (p = 0.002). No patient with greater than 4 arachnoid granulations required a ventriculoperitoneal shunt, irrespective of severity of initial grade.
CONCLUSION: Arachnoid granulations may be protective against the development of shunt dependent chronic hydrocephalus after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. This is irrespective of presenting hemorrhage severity. This is a potentially novel radiologic biomarker and anatomic predictor of shunt dependence.