Arrayed Imaging Reflectometry monitoring of anti-viral antibody production throughout vaccination and breakthrough Covid-19

PLoS One. 2023 Feb 7;18(2):e0277846. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0277846. eCollection 2023.


Immune responses to COVID-19 infection and vaccination are individual and varied. There is a need to understand the timeline of vaccination efficacy against current and yet to be discovered viral mutations. Assessing immunity to SARS-CoV-2 in the context of immunity to other respiratory viruses is also valuable. Here we demonstrate the capability of a fully automated prototype Arrayed Imaging Reflectometry system to perform reliable longitudinal serology against a 34-plex respiratory array. The array contains antigens for respiratory syncytial virus, seasonal influenza, common human coronaviruses, MERS, SARS-CoV-1, and SARS-CoV-2. AIR measures a change in reflectivity due to the binding of serum antibodies to the antigens on the array. Samples were collected from convalescent COVID-19 donors and individuals vaccinated with a two-dose mRNA vaccine regimen. Vaccinated samples were collected prior to the first dose, one week after the first dose, one week after the second dose, and monthly thereafter. Information following booster dose and/or breakthrough infection is included for a subset of subjects. Longitudinal samples of vaccinated individuals demonstrate a rise and fall of SARS-CoV-2 spike antibodies in agreement with general knowledge of the adaptive immune response and other studies. Linear Regression analysis was performed to understand the relationship between antibodies binding to different antigens on the array. Our analysis identified strong correlations between closely related influenza virus strains as well as correlations between SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV-1, and human coronavirus 229E. A small test of using diluted whole blood from a fingerstick provided clean arrays with antibody binding comparable to serum. Potential applications include assessing immunity in the context of exposure to multiple respiratory viruses, clinical serology, population monitoring to facilitate public health recommendations, and vaccine development against new viruses and virus mutations.

PMID:36749755 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0277846


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