Associations Between the Modified Food Standard Agency Nutrient Profiling System Dietary Index and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in an Elderly Population

Front Nutr. 2022 Jul 14;9:897089. doi: 10.3389/fnut.2022.897089. eCollection 2022.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Helping consumers to improve the nutritional quality of their diet is a key public health action to prevent cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The modified version of the Food Standard Agency Nutrient Profiling System Dietary Index (FSAm-NPS DI) underpinning the Nutri-Score front-of-pack label has been used in public health strategies to address the deleterious consequences of poor diets. This study aimed to assess the association between the FSAm-NPS DI and some CVD risk factors including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, plasma glucose levels, triglyceride levels, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and diastolic and systolic blood pressure.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dietary intake was assessed at baseline and after 1 year of follow-up using a 143-item validated semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Dietary indices based on FSAm-NPS applied at an individual level were computed to characterize the diet quality of 5,921 participants aged 55-75 years with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome from the PREDIMED-plus cohort. Associations between the FSAm-NPS DI and CVD risk factors were assessed using linear regression models.

RESULTS: Compared to participants with a higher nutritional quality of diet (measured by a lower FSAm-NPS DI at baseline or a decrease in FSAm-NPS DI after 1 year), those participants with a lower nutritional quality of diet (higher FSAm-NPS DI or an increase in score) showed a significant increase in the levels of plasma glucose, triglycerides, diastolic blood pressure, BMI, and waist circumference (β coefficient [95% confidence interval]; P for trend) (1.67 [0.43, 2.90]; <0.001; 6.27 [2.46, 10.09]; <0.001; 0.56 [0.08, 1.05]; 0.001; 0.51 [0.41, 0.60]; <0.001; 1.19 [0.89, 1.50]; <0.001, respectively). No significant associations in relation to changes in HDL and LDL-cholesterol nor with systolic blood pressure were shown.

CONCLUSION: This prospective cohort study suggests that the consumption of food items with a higher FSAm-NPS DI is associated with increased levels of several major risk factors for CVD including adiposity, fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, and diastolic blood pressure. However, results must be cautiously interpreted because no significant prospective associations were identified for critical CVD risk factors, such as HDL and LDL-cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure.

PMID:35967785 | PMC:PMC9364822 | DOI:10.3389/fnut.2022.897089

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