Orthop Surg. 2022 Nov 8. doi: 10.1111/os.13529. Online ahead of print.
OBJECTIVE: Understanding the morphology of the distal femur is essential for improving bone-implant match in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and understanding the mechanisms behind knee kinematics. However, little is known about the asymmetry of the posterior condyles. Thus, this study aimed to thoroughly investigate asymmetries in sizes and shapes between the medial and lateral posterior condyles before and after femoral resections during TKA in osteoarthritic (OA) knees.
METHODS: Three-dimensional femoral models of 74 OA knees were constructed using computed tomography images. The morphologic measurements of the posterior condyle pre- and post-simulated osteotomy for TKA included the radii of the posterior condyles fitted to a circle on the sagittal and axial planes of the femoral coordinate system, the inclination angle of the articular surface and resected surface, and the width and height of the resected surface. Differences in the data were assessed using Student’s t-test, and correlations were evaluated using the Pearson product-moment correlation.
RESULTS: The radii of the medial posterior condyles fitted to the circle were, on average, 6 mm larger than those of the lateral condyles on the axial plane (p < 0.001) and 0.7 mm smaller than those of the lateral condyles on the sagittal plane (p = 0.046). The inclination angles of the medial and lateral posterior condyles on the axial plane were significantly different with both pre-simulated and post-simulated osteotomy, respectively (both p < 0.001). The resected plane of the lateral posterior condyles displaced opposite inclination directions between the distal and proximal portions. Neither heights or widths of the medial posterior condyles were significantly different from those of their lateral counterparts (both p > 0.107).
CONCLUSIONS: This study found asymmetrical inclination of the resected surface and coronal radii between the medial and lateral posterior condyles, which may relate to the posterolateral overhang of the lateral condyle after TKA and the progression of the knee OA. These findings provides valuable morphological information and may help improve the implant designs for TKA.