Sci Rep. 2023 Jan 11;13(1):594. doi: 10.1038/s41598-023-27778-y.
Due to their lipid accumulation potential, microalgae are widely studied in terms of their use in the production of biodiesel. The present study was focused on determination of changes in the biomass production, biochemical composition, accumulation and distribution of fatty acids in neutral lipids, glycolipids, phospholipids and biodiesel properties of soil microalga Eustigmatos calaminaris in response to various levels of nitrogen stress and indole-3-acetic acid supplementation. The highest growth rate, the highest lipid content and daily lipid productivity were noted at the nitrogen limitation up to 25% with IAA supplementation. The increase in NL was associated with nutrient stress. An increase in the level of GL and PL were recorded upon the reduction of the nitrogen content (25% N) and the addition of IAA. The gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated that C16:0, C16:1, and C18:1 were the main fatty acids in E. calaminaris lipids. As shown by the lipidomic analysis, the IAA supplementation in the nitrogen limitation variants enhanced the content of TAGs in C18:1 and monounsaturated fatty acids. The current findings indicated a potential strategy to improve the fatty acid profile in neutral lipids and high potential of E. calaminaris for biodiesel applications.