Bioactive Coatings on Titanium: A Review on Hydroxylation, Self-Assembled Monolayers (SAMs) and Surface Modification Strategies

Polymers (Basel). 2021 Dec 31;14(1):165. doi: 10.3390/polym14010165.

ABSTRACT

Titanium (Ti) and its alloys have been demonstrated over the last decades to play an important role as inert materials in the field of orthopedic and dental implants. Nevertheless, with the widespread use of Ti, implant-associated rejection issues have arisen. To overcome these problems, antibacterial properties, fast and adequate osseointegration and long-term stability are essential features. Indeed, surface modification is currently presented as a versatile strategy for developing Ti coatings with all these challenging requirements and achieve a successful performance of the implant. Numerous approaches have been investigated to obtain stable and well-organized Ti coatings that promote the tailoring of surface chemical functionalization regardless of the geometry and shape of the implant. However, among all the approaches available in the literature to functionalize the Ti surface, a promising strategy is the combination of surface pre-activation treatments typically followed by the development of intermediate anchoring layers (self-assembled monolayers, SAMs) that serve as the supporting linkage of a final active layer. Therefore, this paper aims to review the latest approaches in the biomedical area to obtain bioactive coatings onto Ti surfaces with a special focus on (i) the most employed methods for Ti surface hydroxylation, (ii) SAMs-mediated active coatings development, and (iii) the latest advances in active agent immobilization and polymeric coatings for controlled release on Ti surfaces.

PMID:35012187 | PMC:PMC8747097 | DOI:10.3390/polym14010165

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