Mater Today Bio. 2022 Jul 1;16:100345. doi: 10.1016/j.mtbio.2022.100345. eCollection 2022 Dec.
The recent spike in the instances of complex physiological host-microbe interactions has raised the demand for developing in vitro models that recapitulate the microbial microenvironment in the human body. Organoids are steadily emerging as an in vitro culture system that closely mimics the structural, functional, and genetic features of complex human organs, particularly for better understanding host-microbe interactions. Recent advances in organoid culture technology have become new avenues for assessing the pathogenesis of symbiotic interactions, pathogen-induced infectious diseases, and various other diseases. The co-cultures of organoids with microbes have shown great promise in simulating host-microbe interactions with a high level of complexity for further advancement in related fields. In this review, we provide an overview of bioengineering approaches for microbe-co-cultured organoids. Latest developments in the applications of microbe-co-cultured organoids to study human physiology and pathophysiology are also highlighted. Further, an outlook on future research on bioengineered organoid co-cultures for various applications is presented.