Bioengineered. 2023 Dec;14(1):2252228. doi: 10.1080/21655979.2023.2252228.
Algae-based biofuel developed over the past decade has become a viable substitute for petroleum-based energy sources. Due to their high lipid accumulation rates and low carbon dioxide emissions, microalgal species are considered highly valuable feedstock for biofuel generation. This review article presented the importance of biofuel and the flaws that need to be overcome to ensure algae-based biofuels are effective for future-ready bioenergy sources. Besides, several issues related to the optimization and engineering strategies to be implemented for microalgae-based biofuel derivatives and their production were evaluated. In addition, the fundamental studies on the microalgae technology, experimental cultivation, and engineering processes involved in the development are all measures that are commendably used in the pre-treatment processes. The review article also provides a comprehensive overview of the latest findings about various algae species cultivation and biomass production. It concludes with the most recent data on environmental consequences, their relevance to global efforts to create microalgae-based biomass as effective biofuels, and the most significant threats and future possibilities.