Bioinspired silk fibroin materials: From silk building blocks extraction and reconstruction to advanced biomedical applications

Mater Today Bio. 2022 Aug 6;16:100381. doi: 10.1016/j.mtbio.2022.100381. eCollection 2022 Dec.

ABSTRACT

Silk fibroin has become a promising biomaterial owing to its remarkable mechanical property, biocompatibility, biodegradability, and sufficient supply. However, it is difficult to directly construct materials with other formats except for yarn, fabric and nonwoven based on natural silk. A promising bioinspired strategy is firstly extracting desired building blocks of silk, then reconstructing them into functional regenerated silk fibroin (RSF) materials with controllable formats and structures. This strategy could give it excellent processability and modifiability, thus well meet the diversified needs in biomedical applications. Recently, to engineer RSF materials with properties similar to or beyond the hierarchical structured natural silk, novel extraction and reconstruction strategies have been developed. In this review, we seek to describe varied building blocks of silk at different levels used in biomedical field and their effective extraction and reconstruction strategies. This review also present recent discoveries and research progresses on how these functional RSF biomaterials used in advanced biomedical applications, especially in the fields of cell-material interactions, soft tissue regeneration, and flexible bioelectronic devices. Finally, potential study and application for future opportunities, and current challenges for these bioinspired strategies and corresponding usage were also comprehensively discussed. In this way, it aims to provide valuable references for the design and modification of novel silk biomaterials, and further promote the high-quality-utilization of silk or other biopolymers.

PMID:36017107 | PMC:PMC9395666 | DOI:10.1016/j.mtbio.2022.100381

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