J Adv Prosthodont. 2022 Jun;14(3):182-202. doi: 10.4047/jap.2022.14.3.182. Epub 2022 Jun 27.
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to summarize various biomechanical aspects in evaluating the long-term stability of dental implants based on finite element method (FEM).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comprehensive search was performed among published studies over the last 20 years in three databases; PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar. The studies are arranged in a comparative table based on their publication date. Also, the variety of modeling is shown in the form of graphs and tables. Various aspects of the studies conducted were discussed here.
RESULTS: By reviewing the titles and abstracts, 9 main categories were extracted and discussed as follows: implant materials, the focus of the study on bone or implant as well as the interface area, type of loading, element shape, parts of the model, boundary conditions, failure criteria, statistical analysis, and experimental tests performed to validate the results. It was found that most of the studied articles contain a model of the jaw bone (cortical and cancellous bone). The material properties were generally derived from the literature. Approximately 43% of the studies attempted to examine the implant and surrounding bone simultaneously. Almost 42% of the studies performed experimental tests to validate the modeling.
CONCLUSION: Based on the results of the studies reviewed, there is no “optimal” design guideline, but more reliable design of implant is possible. This review study can be a starting point for more detailed investigations of dental implant longevity.