Bioresource Upgrade for Sustainable Energy, Environment, and Biomedicine

Nanomicro Lett. 2023 Jan 11;15(1):35. doi: 10.1007/s40820-022-00993-4.

ABSTRACT

We conceptualize bioresource upgrade for sustainable energy, environment, and biomedicine with a focus on circular economy, sustainability, and carbon neutrality using high availability and low utilization biomass (HALUB). We acme energy-efficient technologies for sustainable energy and material recovery and applications. The technologies of thermochemical conversion (TC), biochemical conversion (BC), electrochemical conversion (EC), and photochemical conversion (PTC) are summarized for HALUB. Microalgal biomass could contribute to a biofuel HHV of 35.72 MJ Kg-1 and total benefit of 749 $/ton biomass via TC. Specific surface area of biochar reached 3000 m2 g-1 via pyrolytic carbonization of waste bean dregs. Lignocellulosic biomass can be effectively converted into bio-stimulants and biofertilizers via BC with a high conversion efficiency of more than 90%. Besides, lignocellulosic biomass can contribute to a current density of 672 mA m-2 via EC. Bioresource can be 100% selectively synthesized via electrocatalysis through EC and PTC. Machine learning, techno-economic analysis, and life cycle analysis are essential to various upgrading approaches of HALUB. Sustainable biomaterials, sustainable living materials and technologies for biomedical and multifunctional applications like nano-catalysis, microfluidic and micro/nanomotors beyond are also highlighted. New techniques and systems for the complete conversion and utilization of HALUB for new energy and materials are further discussed.

PMID:36629933 | PMC:PMC9833044 | DOI:10.1007/s40820-022-00993-4

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