MethodsX. 2023 Aug 1;11:102304. doi: 10.1016/j.mex.2023.102304. eCollection 2023 Dec.
This work employed the Admixture of oil from winter squash seed oil and duck waste fat for the synthesis of biodiesel using a derived heterogeneous catalyst from burnt Arecaceae kernel empty bunch (BAKEB). The admixture oil was obtained using the gravity ratio method and the properties of the oils were determined. The developed BAKEB was characterized using SEM, FTIR, XRF-FT, BET-adsorption, and qualitative analysis. Transesterification of the admixture oil to biodiesel was carried out in a single transesterification batch reactor, while Process optimization was carried out via RSM-CCD with four constraint variables namely: reaction period, catalyst conc., reaction temperature, and E-OH/OMR, respectively. The spent catalyst was recycled and reused and the quality of the produced biodiesel was compared with the recommended standard. Results showed the admixture oil ratio of 48:52 was sufficient to produce a validated optimum biodiesel yield of 99.42% (wt./wt.) at the reaction time of 55 min, catalyst conc. of 3.00 (%wt.), reaction temperature of 60 °C, and E-OH/OMR of 5.5:1 (vol./vol.), respectively. ANOVA analysis indicated that all variables were mutually significant at p-value<0.0001.The developed BAKEB was found to contain high percentages of Al-K-Na-Ca. The catalyst recyclability test indicated that BAKEB can be refined and reused. The produced biodiesel qualities have fuel properties similar to conventional diesel when compared with ASTM D6751 and EN 14,214. The study concluded that the blending of winter squash seed oil with duck waste fat in the ratio of 48:52 as feedstock for biodiesel synthesis is viable.