Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae: Diversity, Virulence, and Antimicrobial Resistance

Infect Drug Resist. 2022 Oct 26;15:6177-6187. doi: 10.2147/IDR.S387742. eCollection 2022.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) is one of the most important pathogens in nosocomial infections. It has resistance to most antibiotics, even carbapenem, resulting in restricted therapeutic options.

PURPOSE: We tried to assess the antimicrobial resistance and virulence fitness of carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae (CRKP) in addition to their phenotypic and genotypic diversity.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The conventional methods, automated Vitek-32 system, and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern were used to detect CRKP isolates. Virulence and resistance genes profiles were created by using PCR technique. The correlation analysis was done by using R-program.

RESULTS: The antimicrobial resistance profile for all our K. pneumoniae isolates was shocking as the MDR and CRKP were the most prominent phenotypes. Unfortunately, high degrees of heterogeneity among our CRKP isolates were recorded, as 97.5% of them were differentiated into different clusters. We found a negative correlation between the existence of virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes. In contrast to sputum and urine CRPK isolates, the blood isolates showed high antimicrobial resistance and low virulence fitness. Finally, K. pneumoniae creates several outbreaks and crises in Egypt owing to the highly heterogeneity and the wide spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and multi-virulent CRKP phenotypes.

CONCLUSION: Our results are significant and alarming to health organizations throughout the world for the severity and heterogeneity of K. pneumoniae infections. Therefore, the traditional method for treatment of CRKP infections must be renewed. Additionally, the treatment protocols must be well correlated with the site of infections, phenotypes, and genotypes of CRKP strains.

PMID:36312437 | PMC:PMC9597670 | DOI:10.2147/IDR.S387742

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