Carbon dioxide emissions mitigation strategy through enhanced geothermal systems: western Anatolia, Turkey

Environ Earth Sci. 2022;81(8):235. doi: 10.1007/s12665-022-10345-5. Epub 2022 Apr 7.

ABSTRACT

Although Turkey is not the biggest GHG polluter, its emissions have increased by 110.4% since 1990. Currently, its CO2 emissions alone have crossed 400 Mt. Within the scope of 2 °C targets (2D scenario), the country can easily surpass this target test by increasing its renewable energy sources as a primary energy source mix, by developing its Enhanced Geothermal Sources (EGS) locked up in the radiogenic granites of western Anatolia. The radiogenic heat generated by these granites, spread over an area of 4221 sq. km, varies from 5.3 to 16.34 µW/m3. Based on the electricity generation capacity of granites from Soultz-sous-Forets and Cooper Basin EGS sites, the combined electricity generation capacity of Kestanbol and Kozak granite plutons is about 830 billion kWh. For the period extending from 2019 to 2023, Turkey is aiming at reducing the usage of gas for electricity generation from 29.9 to 20.7%, increasing the share of renewable energy sources from 32.5 to 38.8%, increasing the electricity production from local energy sources from 150 to 219 TWh and increasing the electricity usage per-capita from 3.7 to 4.3 MWh. These energy targets can be achieved by major contributions from hydrothermal and EGS energy sources. This review demonstrates that besides electricity and heat, EGS energy can be utilized, together with other renewable energy sources, such as hydrothermal, wind, and concentrated solar for providing fresh water through the desalination process. These energy sources would provide food, energy, and water security to the country for several decades.

PMID:35411211 | PMC:PMC8986971 | DOI:10.1007/s12665-022-10345-5

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