Cardiac magnetic resonance defines mechanisms of sex-based differences in outcomes following cardiac resynchronization therapy

Front Cardiovasc Med. 2022 Sep 15;9:1007806. doi: 10.3389/fcvm.2022.1007806. eCollection 2022.


BACKGROUND: Mechanisms of sex-based differences in outcomes following cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) are poorly understood.

OBJECTIVE: To use cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) to define mechanisms of sex-based differences in outcomes after CRT and describe distinct CMR-based phenotypes of CRT candidates based on sex and non-ischemic/ischemic cardiomyopathy type.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a prospective study, sex-based differences in three short-term CRT response measures [fractional change in left ventricular end-systolic volume index 6 months after CRT (LVESVI-FC), B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) 6 months after CRT, change in peak VO2 6 months after CRT], and long-term survival were evaluated with respect to 39 baseline parameters from CMR, exercise testing, laboratory testing, electrocardiograms, comorbid conditions, and other sources. CMR was also used to quantify the degree of left-ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony by deriving the circumferential uniformity ratio estimate (CURE-SVD) parameter from displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE) strain imaging. Statistical methods included multivariable linear regression with evaluation of interaction effects associated with sex and cardiomyopathy type (ischemic and non-ischemic cardiomyopathy) and survival analysis.

RESULTS: Among 200 patients, the 54 female patients (27%) pre-CRT had a smaller CMR-based LVEDVI (p = 0.04), more mechanical dyssynchrony based on the validated CMR CURE-SVD parameter (p = 0.04), a lower frequency of both late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and ischemic cardiomyopathy (p < 0.0001), a greater RVEF (p = 0.02), and a greater frequency of LBBB (p = 0.01). After categorization of patients into four groups based on cardiomyopathy type (ischemic/non-ischemic cardiomyopathy) and sex, female patients with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy had the lowest CURE-SVD (p = 0.003), the lowest pre-CRT BNP levels (p = 0.01), the lowest post-CRT BNP levels (p = 0.05), and the most favorable LVESVI-FC (p = 0.001). Overall, female patients had better 3-year survival before adjustment for cardiomyopathy type (p = 0.007, HR = 0.45) and after adjustment for cardiomyopathy type (p = 0.009, HR = 0.67).

CONCLUSION: CMR identifies distinct phenotypes of female CRT patients with non-ischemic and ischemic cardiomyopathy relative to male patients stratified by cardiomyopathy type. The more favorable short-term response and long-term survival outcomes in female heart failure patients with CRT were associated with lower indexed CMR-based LV volumes, decreased presence of scar associated with prior myocardial infarction and ICM, and greater CMR-based dyssynchrony with the CURE-SVD.

PMID:36186999 | PMC:PMC9521735 | DOI:10.3389/fcvm.2022.1007806


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