Casein-Coated Molybdenum Disulfide Nanosheets Augment the Bioactivity of Alginate Microspheres for Orthopedic Applications

ACS Omega. 2022 Jul 21;7(30):26092-26106. doi: 10.1021/acsomega.2c00995. eCollection 2022 Aug 2.

ABSTRACT

Defects and disorders of the bone due to disease, trauma, or abnormalities substantially affect a person’s life quality. Research in bone tissue engineering is motivated to address these clinical needs. The present study demonstrates casein-mediated liquid exfoliation of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and its coupling with alginate to create microspheres to engineer bone graft substitutes. Casein-exfoliated nano-MoS2 was chemically characterized using different analytical techniques. The UV-visible spectrum of nano-MoS2-2 displayed strong absorption peaks at 610 and 668 nm. In addition, the XPS spectra confirmed the presence of the molybdenum (Mo, 3d), sulfur (S, 2p), carbon (C, 1s), oxygen (O, 1s), and nitrogen (N, 1s) elements. The exfoliated MoS2 nanosheets were biocompatible with the MG-63, MC3T3-E1, and C2C12 cells at 250 μg/mL concentration. Further, microspheres were created using alginate, and they were characterized physiochemically and biologically. Stereomicroscopic images showed that the microspheres were spherical with an average diameter of 1 ± 0.2 mm. The dispersion of MoS2 in the alginate matrix was uniform. The alginate-MoS2 microspheres promoted apatite formation in the SBF (simulated body fluid) solution. Moreover, the alginate-MoS2 was biocompatible with MG-63 cells and promoted cell proliferation. Higher alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization were observed on the alginate-MoS2 with the MG-63 cells. Hence, the developed alginate-MoS2 microsphere could be a potential candidate for a bone graft substitute.

PMID:35936459 | PMC:PMC9352227 | DOI:10.1021/acsomega.2c00995

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