Chemosphere. 2022 Jul 4:135578. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.135578. Online ahead of print.
Overexpression of proteins/antigens and other gene-related sequences in the bodies could lead to significant mutations and refractory diseases. Detection and identification of assorted trace concentrations of such proteins/antigens and/or gene-related sequences remain challenging, affecting different pathogens and making viruses stronger. Correspondingly, coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) mutations/alterations and spread could lead to overexpression of ssDNA and the related antigens in the population and brisk activity in gene-editing technologies in the treatment/detection may lead to the presence of pCRISPR in the blood. Therefore, the detection and evaluation of their trace concentrations are of critical importance. CaZnO-based nanoghosts (NGs) were synthesized with the assistance of a high-gravity technique at a 1,800 MHz field, capitalizing on the use of Rosmarinus officinalis leaf extract as the templating agent. A complete chemical, physical and biological investigation revealed that the synthesized NGs presented similar morphological features to the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), resulting in excellent biocompatibility, interaction with ssDNA- and/or pCRISPR-surface, through various chemical and physical mechanisms. This is the first time synthesizing a fully inorganic nanostructure with similar behavior to MSCs. Furthermore, the endowed exceptional ability of inorganic NGs for detective sensing/folding of ssDNA and pCRISPR and recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike antigen (RSCSA), along with in-situ hydrogen peroxide detection on the HEK-293 and HeLa cell lines, was discerned. On average, they displayed a high drug loading capacity of 55%, and the acceptable internalizations inside the HT-29 cell lines affirmed the anticipated MSCs-like behavior of these inorganic-NGs.