Sci Technol Adv Mater. 2023 Sep 8;24(1):2250705. doi: 10.1080/14686996.2023.2250705. eCollection 2023.
This review comprehensively covers synthetic catalysts for the hydrolysis of biorelevant phosphates and pyrophosphates, which bridge between nanoarchitectonics and biology to construct their interdisciplinary hybrids. In the early 1980s, remarkable catalytic activity of Ce4+ ion for phosphate hydrolysis was found. More recently, this finding has been extended to Ce-based solid catalysts (CeO2 and Ce-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)), which are directly compatible with nanoarchitectonics. Monoesters and triesters of phosphates, as well as pyrophosphates, were effectively cleaved by these catalysts. With the use of either CeO2 nanoparticles or elegantly designed Ce-based MOF, highly stable phosphodiester linkages were also hydrolyzed. On the surfaces of all these solid catalysts, Ce4+ and Ce3+ coexist and cooperate for the catalysis. The Ce4+ activates phosphate substrates as a strong acid, whereas the Ce3+ provides metal-bound hydroxide as an eminent nucleophile. Applications of these Ce-based catalysts to practical purposes are also discussed.