Cellulose-based composites are promising biomaterials with potent applications in absorbents, cosmetics, and healthcare industries. In this study, the cellulose fractions from various agricultural residues, including bagasse (BG), rice straw (RS), corncob (CC), and palm fiber (PF), were prepared by the organosolv process using 70% v/v ethanol, followed by bleaching and forming with chitosan powder. Organosolv treatment at 180 °C of BG, RS, and PF and at 190 °C of CC for 60 min using H2SO4 as the catalyst was optimal for high cellulose recovery (87.9-98.9%) with efficient removals of the hemicellulose (59.3-86.0%) and lignin (61.1-73.7%). High cellulose purity in the solids (76.9-86.8%) was obtained after bleaching with 4% v/v H2O2 compared with that of 84.9% for commercial cellulose. The isolated celluloses were incubated with 2% w/v chitosan solution in acetic acid for the formation of the hydrogen-bonding interaction between the cellulose fiber and chitosan. The pieces of evidence of the obtained sheet materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. All cellulose-chitosan materials absorbed water fraction in the range of 54.3-94.2 g/m2. Efficient oil absorption was observed for cellulose-chitosan sheets prepared from PF (96.3 g/m2) and CC (81.1 g/m2). This work demonstrated the preparation of potent biobased absorbents with a promising application in waste treatment and healthcare industries.