Charge-reversible and biodegradable chitosan-based microgels for lysozyme-triggered release of vancomycin

J Adv Res. 2023 Jan;43:87-96. doi: 10.1016/j.jare.2022.02.014. Epub 2022 Feb 24.

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: High-dose drug administration for the conventional treatment of inflammatory bowel disease induces cumulative toxicity and serious side effects. Currently, few reports have introduced smart carriers for intestinal inflammation targeting toward the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

OBJECTIVES: For the unique lysozyme secretory microenvironment of the inflamed intestine, vancomycin-loaded chitosan-polyaniline microgels (CH-PANI MGs) were constructed for lysozyme-triggered VM release.

METHODS: Aniline was first grafted to chitosan to form polymers that were crosslinked by glutaraldehyde to achieve CH-PANI MGs using the inverse (water-in-oil) miniemulsion method. Interestingly, CH-PANI MGs exhibit polyampholyte behaviour and display charge-reversible behaviour (positive to negative charges) after treatment with a NaCl solution.

RESULTS: The formed negatively charged N-CH-PANI MG aqueous solution is employed to load cationic vancomycin with a satisfactory loading efficiency of 91.3%, which is significantly higher than that of chitosan-based MGs. Moreover, N-CH-PANI MGs present lysozyme-triggered biodegradation and controllable vancomycin release upon the cleavage of glycosidic linkages of chitosan. In the simulated inflammatory intestinal microenvironment, vancomycin is rapidly released, and the cumulative release reaches approximately 76.9%. Remarkably, N-CH-PANI@VM MGs not only exhibit high resistance to harsh gastric acidity but also prevent the premature leakage of vancomycin in the healthy gastrointestinal tract. Encouragingly, the N-CH-PANI@VM MGs show obvious antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus at a relatively low concentration of 20 μg/mL.

CONCLUSION: Compared to other pH-responsive carriers used to treat inflammatory bowel disease, the key advantage of lysozyme-responsive MGs is that they further specifically identify healthy and inflammatory intestines, achieving efficient inflammatory bowel disease treatment with few side effects. With this excellent performance, the developed smart MGs might be employed as a potential oral delivery system for inflammatory bowel disease treatment.

PMID:36585117 | DOI:10.1016/j.jare.2022.02.014

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