Chlorambucil-Loaded Graphene-Oxide-Based Nano-Vesicles for Cancer Therapy

Pharmaceutics. 2023 Feb 15;15(2):649. doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics15020649.


In this study, the authors have designed biocompatible nano-vesicles using graphene oxide (GO) for the release of chlorambucil (CHL) drugs targeting cancerous cells. The GO sheets were first sulfonated and conjugated with folic acid (FA) molecules for controlled release and high loading efficiency of CHL. The chlorambucil (CHL) drug loading onto the functionalized GO surface was performed through π-π stacking and hydrophobic interactions with the aromatic planes of GO. The drug loading and “in vitro” release from the nano-vesicles at different pH were studied. The average particle size, absorption, and loading efficiency (%) of FA-conjugated GO sheets (CHL-GO) were observed to be 300 nm, 58%, and 77%, respectively. The drug release study at different pH (i.e., 7.4 and 5.5) showed a slight deceleration at pH 7.4 over pH 5.5. The amount of drug released was very small at pH 7.4 in the first hour which progressively increased to 24% after 8 h. The rate of drug release was faster at pH 5.5; initially, 16% to 27% in the first 3 h, and finally it reached 73% after 9 h. These observations indicate that the drug is released more rapidly at acidic pH with a larger amount of drug-loading ability. The rate of drug release from the CHL-loaded GO was 25% and 75% after 24 h. The biotoxicity study in terms of % cell viability of CHL-free and CHL-loaded GO against human cervical adenocarcinoma cell line was found to have lower cytotoxicity of CHL-loaded nano-vesicles (IC50 = 18 μM) as compared to CHL-free (IC50 = 8 μM). It is concluded that a high drug-loading efficiency and controlled release with excellent biotoxicity of CHL-GO offers an excellent application in the biomedical field.

PMID:36839970 | PMC:PMC9961782 | DOI:10.3390/pharmaceutics15020649


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