Biomed Res Int. 2023 Jan 9;2023:2657278. doi: 10.1155/2023/2657278. eCollection 2023.
AIM: This study is aimed at establishing phenolic compound profile and assessing the possible antiulcer activities of aqueous extracts of some staple plant foods from the West and North-West regions of Cameroon against chronic gastric ulcer models in rats.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Phenolic constituents of extracts were evaluated using HPLC-DAD. Aqueous extracts of Corchorus olitorius, Solanum nigrum, Vigna unguiculata, Triumfetta pentandra, “nkui” spices, and “yellow soup” spices were tested at two doses (200 and 400 mg/kg). After treatments, animals were sacrificed, healing percentage and antioxidant status (catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase) were evaluated, and histological examination of gastric mucosa was realized.
RESULTS: HPLC-DAD revealed that p-hydroxybenzoic and protocatechuic acids were the phenolic compound present in all extracts. Oral administration of extracts (200 and 400 mg/kg) significantly reduced ulcer surface value and significantly increased mucus production compared to the control groups (p < 0.05). Histological study supported the observed healing activity of different extracts characterized by a reduced inflammatory response. Moreover, administration of aqueous extracts increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes.
CONCLUSION: This study revealed that aqueous extracts of Solanum nigrum, Corchorus olitorius, Vigna unguiculata, Triumfetta pentandra, “yellow soup” spices, and “nkui” spices possess healing antiulcer effects against models of gastric ulcers. The antiulcer mechanisms involved may include increase of gastric mucus production and improvement of the antioxidant activity of gastric tissue. These activities may be due to the phenolic compounds identified in the extracts, especially p-hydroxybenzoic and protocatechuic acids present in all extracts and with known antioxidant, cytoprotective, and healing properties. However, all the diets may promote the healing process of chronic ulcers caused by excessive alcohol consumption/stress.