Micromachines (Basel). 2023 Feb 4;14(2):392. doi: 10.3390/mi14020392.
Radio frequency energy harvesting (RFEH) is one form of renewable energy harvesting currently seeing widespread popularity because many wireless electronic devices can coordinate their communications via RFEH, especially in CMOS technology. For RFEH, the sensitivity of detecting low-power ambient RF signals is the utmost priority. The voltage boosting mechanisms at the input of the RFEH are typically applied to enhance its sensitivity. However, the bandwidth in which its sensitivity is maintained is very poor. This work implements a tunable voltage boosting (TVB) mechanism fully on-chip in a 3-stage cross-coupled differential drive rectifier (CCDD). The TVB is designed with an interleaved transformer architecture where the primary winding is implemented to the rectifier, while the secondary winding is connected to a MOSFET switch that tunes the inductance of the network. The TVB enables the sensitivity of the rectifier to be maintained at 1V DC output voltage with a minimum deviation of -2 dBm across a wide bandwidth of 3 to 6 GHz of 5G New Radio frequency (5GNR) bands. A DC output voltage of 1 V and a peak PCE of 83% at 3 GHz for -23 dBm input power are achieved. A PCE of more than 50% can be maintained at the sensitivity point of 1 V with the aid of TVB. The proposed CCDD-TVB mechanism enables the CMOS RFEH to be operated for wideband applications with optimum sensitivity, DC output voltage, and efficiency.
PMID:36838092 | PMC:PMC9958904 | DOI:10.3390/mi14020392