Comprehensive thermochemical treatment (pyrolysis and combustion) is considered to be an efficient method for treatment of oil sludge (OS) or utilization as a heat source. However, combustion of oil sludge char (OSC), the byproduct from OS pyrolysis, is difficult and energy-consuming due to the high ash content and low heating value. In this study, co-combustion of OSC with biomass is proposed, aiming at the efficient thermal treatment with heat recovery. The thermal characteristics, kinetics, and interactive mechanisms of co-combustion of OSC with raw wood (RW) or hydrothermally treated wood (HW) employing thermogravimetric analysis were investigated. The obtained results indicated that RW blending with OSC resulted in negative interactions with decreasing the apparent activation energies (E) of RW, attributed to the inhibited diffusion of volatiles. The developed porous structure in HW effectively promoted volatile matter diffusion. Coupled with the catalytic support by metal oxides in OSC, HW blending yielded positive interactions during co-combustion despite the increased E. The results showed that diffusion models were the most efficient mechanism for OSC/RW combustion. However, chemical reactions were found to be the rate-determining steps for OSC/HW combustion. The catalytic effect of inorganic elements and their physical influence on heat and mass transfer can control the co-combustion performance of OSC and biomass. The findings could offer reference information for understanding OSC co-combustion and provide a basis for implementing and optimizing the co-combustion between biomass and ash-rich waste.