Co-fermentation involving Lysinibacillus sp. and Aspergillus flavus for simultaneous palm oil waste treatment and renewable biomass fuel production

AIMS Microbiol. 2022 Sep 16;8(3):357-371. doi: 10.3934/microbiol.2022025. eCollection 2022.

ABSTRACT

Biomass fuel is one of the renewable energy sources that can be produced by valorization of palm oil mill effluent (POME) and empty fruit bunch (EFB). POME and EFB are available abundantly in Malaysia and only small portion is utilized to produce other value-added products. The objective of this study is to: (1) utilize the wastes from agro-industrial sector especially palm oil wastes and bio-valorize into value-added product of biomass fuel with high CEV, and simultaneously (2) reduce the waste accumulated in the palm oil factory. In this study, co-fermentation of bacteria (Lysinibacillus sp.) and fungus (Aspergillus flavus) at 37 °C, 180 rpm for 5 days, followed by overnight oven-dry at 85 °C was conducted utilizing a mixture of POME and EFB with the ratio of 7:3 at laboratory scale. Three fermentation medium conditions were performed, namely: (1) Group 1: autoclaved POME and EFB without addition of any microorganisms, (2) Group 2: autoclaved POME and EFB with the addition of Lysinibacillus sp. LC 556247 and Aspergillus flavus, and (3) Group 3: POME and EFB as it is (non-sterile). Among all condition, Group 2 with co-fermentation evinced the highest calorific energy value (CEV) of 26.71 MJ/kg, highest biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) removal efficiency of 61.11%, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency at 48.47%, and total suspended solid (TSS) reduction of 37.12%. Overall, this study successfully utilized abundant POME and EFB waste and turn into value added product of renewable biomass fuel with high CEV percentage and simultaneously able to reduce abundant liquid waste.

PMID:36317005 | PMC:PMC9576501 | DOI:10.3934/microbiol.2022025

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