Combined effect of apigenin and reduced graphene oxide against Enterococcus faecalis biofilms

J Oral Sci. 2023 May 20. doi: 10.2334/josnusd.22-0459. Online ahead of print.


PURPOSE: Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) is one of the major microorganisms that causes failure of endodontic treatment. This study aimed to investigate the antibacterial activity of apigenin and its synergistic effect with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) in treating E. faecalis biofilms.

METHODS: The antibacterial activities were characterized by viability analysis including colony forming units and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) analyses. The effect on biofilm biomass was measured using a crystal violet staining method. Live and dead bacteria bio-volumes were determined by CLSM analysis, and the morphology of E. faecalis biofilm after treatment with apigenin and apigenin + RGO was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

RESULTS: The viability of E. faecalis in biofilms decreased by apigenin treatment in a dose-dependent manner. While apigenin alone did not significantly affect the biofilm biomass, apigenin + RGO reduced the biomass in an apigenin concentration-dependent manner. Likewise, the bio-volume of live bacteria decreased and the bio-volume of dead bacteria increased in apigenin-treated biofilms. According to SEM images, apigenin + RGO-treated samples showed less E. faecalis in biofilms than apigenin-only treated samples.

CONCLUSION: The results suggested that the combined use of apigenin and RGO could be a potential strategy for effective endodontic disinfection.

PMID:37211399 | DOI:10.2334/josnusd.22-0459


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