Food Sci Nutr. 2023 Jul 6;11(9):5609-5620. doi: 10.1002/fsn3.3556. eCollection 2023 Sep.
Avocado tree pruning activities generate a substantial amount of residual biomass, which includes different parts of the plant, such as leaves, twigs, branches, and small fruits. This study aimed to investigate the impact of different green extraction methods of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and ohmic heating-assisted extraction (OHAE) for the phenolic extraction of avocado leaves based on a statistical approach, central composite design (CCD), and response surface methodology (RSM). Water was preferred using as an environmentally and health-friendly solvent for both methods. The phenolic composition, antioxidant activity, and antidiabetic potential of the extracts were identified and comparatively assessed. The developed models exhibited a high degree of reliability with optimal conditions for OHAE and MAE, which were determined as 9.38 V/cm voltage gradient, 6 min extraction time, at 60°C, 5 min, and 1 g dried leaf/100 mL water. Epicatechin was identified as the primary phenolic compound in OHAE extracts, while chlorogenic acid was the dominant compound in MAE extracts. The extracts obtained from OHAE and MAE were tested for their ability to inhibit α-glucosidase activity, with IC50 (mg/mL) values of 0.85 and 1.14, respectively. The DPPH radicals scavenging activity (IC50 mg/L) of OHAE and MAE were detected as 2.96 and 3.41, respectively. In conclusion, both methods yielded extracts rich in polyphenols that displayed high antioxidant activity, but OHAE was found to be superior to MAE in terms of TPC, DPPH, and antidiabetic activities. The results of this study have the potential to make significant contributions toward promoting the principles of a circular economy by facilitating the valorization of the avocado pruning waste.