PURPOSE: To compare real-time compressed sensing (CS) and standard balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) cardiac cine imaging in children.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty children (mean age, 15 years ± 5 [SD], range, 7-21 years; 10 male participants) with biventricular congenital heart disease (n = 11) or cardiomyopathy (n = 9) were prospectively included. Examinations were performed with 1.5-T imagers by using both bSSFP and CS sequences in all participants. Quantification of ventricular volumes and function was performed for all images by two readers blinded to patient diagnosis and type of sequence. Values were correlated with phase-contrast flow measurements by one reader. Intra- and interreader agreement were analyzed.
RESULTS: There were no significant differences between ventricular parameters measured on CS compared with those of bSSFP (P > .05) for reader 1. Only ejection fraction showed a significant difference (P = .02) for reader 2. Intrareader agreement was considerable for both sequences (bSSFP: mean difference range, +1 to -2.6; maximum CI, +7.9, -13; bias range, 0.1%-4.1%; intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] range, 0.931-0.997. CS: mean difference range, +7.4 to -5.6; maximum CI, +37.2, -48.8; bias range, 0.5%-7.5%; ICC range, 0.717-0.997). Interreader agreement was acceptable but less robust, especially for CS (bSSFP: mean difference range, +2.6 to -5.6; maximum CI, +60.7, -65.3; bias range, 1.6%-6.2%; ICC range, 0.726-0.951. CS: mean difference range, +10.7 to -9.1; maximum CI, +87.5, -84.6; bias range, 1.1%-17.3%; ICC range, 0.509-0.849). The mean acquisition time was shorter for CS (20 seconds; range, 17-25 seconds) compared with that for bSSFP (160 seconds; range, 130-190 seconds) (P < .001).
CONCLUSION: CS cardiac cine imaging provided equivalent ventricular volume and function measurements with shorter acquisition times compared with those of bSSFP and may prove suitable for the pediatric population.Keywords: Compressed Sensing, Balanced Steady-State Free Precession, Cine Imaging, Cardiovascular MRI, Pediatrics, Cardiac, Heart, Cardiomyopathies, Congenital, Segmentation© RSNA, 2022.