Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Aug 13;23(16):9098. doi: 10.3390/ijms23169098.
Crystalline metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are extensively used in areas such as gas storage and small-molecule drug delivery. Although Cu-BTC (1, MOF-199, BTC: benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate) has versatile applications, its NO storage and release characteristics are not amenable to therapeutic usage. In this work, micro-sized Cu-BTC was prepared solvothermally and then processed by ball-milling to prepare nano-sized Cu-BTC (2). The NO storage and release properties of the micro- and nano-sized Cu-BTC MOFs were morphology dependent. Control of the hydration degree and morphology of the NO delivery vehicle improved the NO release characteristics significantly. In particular, the nano-sized NO-loaded Cu-BTC (NO⊂nano-Cu-BTC, 4) released NO at 1.81 µmol·mg-1 in 1.2 h in PBS, which meets the requirements for clinical usage. The solid-state structural formula of NO⊂Cu-BTC was successfully determined to be [CuC6H2O5]·(NO)0.167 through single-crystal X-ray diffraction, suggesting no structural changes in Cu-BTC upon the intercalation of 0.167 equivalents of NO within the pores of Cu-BTC after NO loading. The structure of Cu-BTC was also stably maintained after NO release. NO⊂Cu-BTC exhibited significant antibacterial activity against six bacterial strains, including Gram-negative and positive bacteria. NO⊂Cu-BTC could be utilized as a hybrid NO donor to explore the synergistic effects of the known antibacterial properties of Cu-BTC.