Cross-Linked Enzyme Aggregates and Their Application in Enzymatic Pretreatment of Microalgae: Comparison Between CLEAs and Combi-CLEAs

Front Bioeng Biotechnol. 2021 Dec 9;9:794672. doi: 10.3389/fbioe.2021.794672. eCollection 2021.

ABSTRACT

Carrier-free immobilization is a key process to develop efficient biocatalysts able to catalyze the cell wall degradation in microalgae where the traditional solid supports cannot penetrate. Thus, the insolubilization of commercial Celluclast®, Alcalase®, and Viscozyme® enzymes by carrier-free immobilization and their application in microalgae pretreatment was investigated. In this study, different precipitants at different ratios (ethanol, acetone, and polyethylene glycol 4000) were tested in the first part of the method, to establish the precipitation conditions. The screening of the best precipitant is needed as it depends on the nature of the enzyme. The best results were studied in terms of immobilization yield, thermal stability, and residual activity and were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. Moreover, a novel strategy was intended including the three enzymes (combi-CLEAs) to catalyze the enzymatic degradation of Nannochloropsis gaditana microalgal cell wall in one pot. The carrier-free immobilized derivatives were 10 times more stable compared to soluble enzymes under the same. At the best conditions showed its usefulness in the pretreatment of microalgae combined with ultrasounds, facilitating the cell disruption and lipid recovery. The results obtained suggested the powerful application of these robust biocatalysts with great catalytic properties on novel and sustainable biomass such as microalgae to achieve cost-effective and green process to extract valuable bioactive compounds.

PMID:34957082 | PMC:PMC8696024 | DOI:10.3389/fbioe.2021.794672

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