J Biol Eng. 2023 Mar 6;17(1):18. doi: 10.1186/s13036-023-00326-y.
BACKGROUND: Bacterial colonisation on implantable device surfaces is estimated to cause more than half of healthcare-associated infections. The application of inorganic coatings onto implantable devices limits/prevents microbial contaminations. However, reliable and high-throughput deposition technologies and experimental trials of metal coatings for biomedical applications are missing. Here, we propose the combination of the Ionized Jet Deposition (IJD) technology for metal-coating application, with the Calgary Biofilm Device (CBD) for high-throughput antibacterial and antibiofilm screening, to develop and screen novel metal-based coatings.
RESULTS: The films are composed of nanosized spherical aggregates of metallic silver or zinc oxide with a homogeneous and highly rough surface topography. The antibacterial and antibiofilm activity of the coatings is related with the Gram staining, being Ag and Zn coatings more effective against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, respectively. The antibacterial/antibiofilm effect is proportional to the amount of metal deposited that influences the amount of metal ions released. The roughness also impacts the activity, mostly for Zn coatings. Antibiofilm properties are stronger on biofilms developing on the coating than on biofilms formed on uncoated substrates. This suggests a higher antibiofilm effect arising from the direct contact bacteria-coating than that associated with the metal ions release. Proof-of-concept of application to titanium alloys, representative of orthopaedic prostheses, confirmed the antibiofilm results, validating the approach. In addition, MTT tests show that the coatings are non-cytotoxic and ICP demonstrates that they have suitable release duration (> 7 days), suggesting the applicability of these new generation metal-based coatings for the functionalization of biomedical devices.
CONCLUSIONS: The combination of the Calgary Biofilm Device with the Ionized Jet Deposition technology proved to be an innovative and powerful tool that allows to monitor both the metal ions release and the surface topography of the films, which makes it suitable for the study of the antibacterial and antibiofilm activity of nanostructured materials. The results obtained with the CBD were validated with coatings on titanium alloys and extended by also considering the anti-adhesion properties and biocompatibility. In view of upcoming application in orthopaedics, these evaluations would be useful for the development of materials with pleiotropic antimicrobial mechanisms.
PMID:36879323 | PMC:PMC9987098 | DOI:10.1186/s13036-023-00326-y